Development study questionnaire Smart
Topman, R.M., Kleijn, W.Chr., Ploeg, H.M. van der & Masset, E.A.E.A. (1992). Test anxiety, cognitions, study habits and academic performance: a prospective study. In K.A. Hagvet & T. Backer Johnsen (Eds.), Advances in Test Anxiety Research, (Volume 7, pp 221-240). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.


In a prospective design measures were collected of (test) anxiety, cognitions (test-related thoughts, general and study-related cognitions) and study habits (time management and strategic studying) at the start of the first academic year of students in two fields of study (medicine, biomedical science). At the end of that year for each student the GPA was computed. The interrelations between these three groups of variables and academic performance (GPA) were examined. Our results indicate that specific study-related cognitions (academic and test competence) and a specific study habit (time management) are on the one hand related to test anxiety and on the other hand are related to GPA. The relationship of (test) anxiety, test-related thoughts, more general cognitions (optimism) and strategic studying is less outspoken. Our data did not support the interference model of the debilitating effect of test anxiety on performance, partly support the deficit model of the debilitating effect of test anxiety. Our data are fully in accordance with more general cognitive models of test anxiety and achievement, but point to specific study-related cognitions and study habits. A comparison between the characteristics of high versus low test-anxious students and high versus low-performing students gives an indication for the optimalization of the treatment of test anxiety. High test-anxious students should be treated to develop specific study-related cognitions and an optimal balance between time spent on study and time spent on other activities. Discriminant analysis seems to suggest the potential possibility to identify the students at risk of failing in their studies in a very early stage.
Kleijn, W.Chr., Ploeg, H.M. van der & Topman, R.M. (1994). Cognition, study-habits, test anxiety and academic performance. Psychological Reports, 75, 1219-1226.


The Study Management And Academic Results questionnaire (SMART) was developed to measure study and exam related cognitions, time management and study strategies. This questionnaire was used in three prospective studies, together with measures for optimism (LOT) and test anxiety (TA). In the first two studies, among 253 first year students enrolled in four different faculties, the highest correlation with academic performance were found for the SMART scales. In a replication study, among first year medical students (n=156) at a different university, the same pattern of results was observed. Correlation between performance and optimism was not significant, but for anxiety and SMART scale test competence respectively .27 and .57 were measured.

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